Diamonds consist of only carbon, with covalent atomic bonds, which makes it harder material existing in the world.
The hardness of the materials refers to the ability to resist abrasions and scratches, not to the ability to break, so we can say that the diamond is hard but at the same time not indestructible.
The diamond is born only when particular temperature and pressure conditions occur: 1300 ° -2000 ° C, 70 tons / cm2.
These conditions can only be found at a depth greater than 150 km, and the time required for its formation is very long, from 800 million years. for the youngest diamonds to 3.3 billion years for the oldest.
HOW ARE DIAMONDS CLASSIFIED?
To classify and determine the value of a diamond compared to another, 4 universal quality criteria called “the 4 Cs” are followed :
- Carat – Carat
- Color – Color
- Clarity – Purity
- Cut – Cut
The carat is the unit of measurement of diamonds and precious stones in general (sapphires, rubies, emeralds, etc) and is written ct.
A carat is divided into 100 cents called points and corresponds to 0.20 gr; for a stone weighing 0.45 ct, it is said to be “45 points”.
The adoption of the carat as a unit of measurement of the weight of diamonds dates back to the dawn of time; In fact, it seems that the first precious merchants weighed diamonds using carob seeds (hence the term carat) as a reference.
During the growth of the diamond, within its atomic structure, atoms of other elements can be inserted which affect the color of the stone .
If the stone is composed of only carbon atoms, its color is “white”.
The presence of nitrogen atoms gives the stone a more or less intense shade of yellow .
The scale set by the Gemological Institute of America is used to determine to which degree of color a stone belongs.
In the diamond, the more the stone is free of inclusions, the higher its value.
An inclusion can be a crystal “housed” within the gem, a crack or other.
The factors that influence the expert’s final decision are:
The number of inclusions, their size , the position they have within the stone (one inclusion affects the table more than one on the crown or belt), the contrast (some inclusions, such as feathers, are very visible in some positions, while in others they can be practically invisible; crystals on the other hand usually have the same contrast in all positions); the color (we find black, white and / or rarely red inclusions).
If the cut reflects precise measurements and proportions , the optical characteristics of the diamond are enhanced to the maximum , guaranteeing an almost total reflection of light from the inside of the stone towards the outside.
In addition to the proportions, the success of a brilliant cut is also determined by the symmetry of the cut, which can be very good (VG), good (G), or medium (Medium).
A further element considered in evaluating the accuracy of the cut is the polishing (polish). During the cutting operations, the veneers are polished so that all traces of the machining are eliminated.
However, it is possible that some surface lines remain on the veneers, they are traces of polishing.
The finishing and polishing do not affect the purity of the stone.
The set of proportions, symmetry, and polishing defines the so-called “finish”.
The cut can also refer to the shape that the diamond can take. The type of cut can vary the price of the diamond, the most expensive is the round cut while the cheapest is the radiant cut.
THE GEMMOLOGICAL CERTIFICATION
The Gemological Identification Certificate is a declaration containing a series of data, characteristics, and classification of diamonds, extrapolated from laboratory analysis.
These analyzes are performed by qualified technicians, registered gemologists , with the aid of special tools.
Consumer protection is therefore absolute as it confirms the authenticity and fixes the specific characteristics of the stones with objectivity and competence .
Not to be underestimated is the use for insurance purposes , in fact this document is essential for a correct calculation of a possible insurance premium or in the case of a refund request.
Furthermore, the certificates issued by our company are accompanied by an image of the jewel that facilitates its recognition.
The Process is a certification agreement designed to ensure that profits from the sale of diamonds are not used to finance civil wars, helping to protect the legitimate trade in rough diamonds.
The main countries of the world and the multinationals producing diamonds participate, which guarantees, under the aegis of the UN, that the profits made from the diamond trade are not used to finance civil wars.
All the diamonds, certificates of origin attest to the entire path of the stones, guaranteeing their origin and all the steps.
37 countries are part of this agreement, organizations such as the World Diamond Council and multinational companies that extract and trade diamonds.
In order to become part of this agreement, some requirements must be met:
- that diamonds from the country are not intended to finance rebel groups or other organizations aiming to overthrow the government recognized by the United Nations.
- that each exported diamond is accompanied by a certificate proving compliance with the Kimberley Processche scheme
- that no diamonds are imported from, or exported to, a country that is not a member of the Kimberley Process.
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